Tabling of the Pennefather Commission report... MORE
The Colonial Office transfers the responsibility of Indian Affairs to the government of the Province of Canada. Until Confederation, Indian Affairs is under the jurisdiction of the Crown Lands Department and the Commissioner becomes Chief Superintendent (23 Victoria, chapter 151).
Signing in October of the Manitoulin Island Treaty.
Adoption on 29 March of the British North America Act — which unites Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick — and transfers the administration of Indian Affairs to the Secretary of State (30-31 Victoria, chapter 3, section 91). Parliament is entrusted with “the Indians and the lands reserved for the Indians" (sec. 29).
Adoption on 22 June of an amendment to the Indian Act: An Act for the gradual enfranchisement of Indians, the better management of Indian affairs, and to extend the provisions of the Act 31st Victoria, Chapter 42... MORE
Creation of the Grand Indian Council of Ontario and Quebec.
British Columbia joins the Canadian Confederation. One clause stipulates that the railroad must reach the province within ten years following the province’s union with Canada.
The Dominion Lands Act gives 160 acres of land to each father of an immigrant family who wishes to settle and farm the land in western Canada. However, this Act applies solely to the lands already surrendered by the First Nations (section 14 of the order-in-council of 23 June 1870).
Signing of Treaty No. 3 , which covers the territory located in the western portion of the present-day province of Ontario and a portion of Manitoba.
The creation of the North-West Mounted Police... MORE
An amendment to the Act respecting Indians (Act to amend the Indian Act [50-51 Victoria, chapter 33, section 1]),.. MORE
Amendment to the Indian Act allowing the Canadian government to rent certain reserve lands without band consent.
Hayter Reed, superintendent of Indian Affairs, puts forward a subsistence agriculture policy known as the Peasant Farming Policy... MORE
Amendment to theIndian Act assented to on 16 May. This amendment authorizes the Superintendent General to subject Indians to laws “on hunting or on such a species of game" in effect in Manitoba and the Northwest Territories (53 Victoria, chapter 29, section 10).
Amendment to the Indian Act in order to authorize the Superintendent to require attendance at residential schools subject to penalty (57-58 Victoria, chapter 32, section 11).
One amendment to the Indian Act extends the scope of the ban on potlatch to include the dance known as Tamanawas.... MORE
1898 and 1912
Adoption of the Acts to expand the borders of Quebec and Ontario.
Signing on 21 June of Treaty No. 8, which covers northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, northwestern Saskatchewan and a portion of the Northwest Territories.
Saskatchewan and Alberta join Confederation.
Signing in July of Traity No. 9 which covers the territory located in the northern portion of the present-day province of Ontario.
Signing in August of Treaty No. 10, which covers the territory located in the central and northeastern portions of the present-day province of Saskatchewan.
The Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, Frank Pedley, sells the St. Peter reserve (Manitoba). One twentieth of the revenues from the sale are remitted to the members of the community.
Faced with the reluctance on the part of the First Nations to sell their lands, Franck Olivier, Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, amends the Indian Act in order to bypass approval from a band council for land sales... MORE
Expansion of the borders of Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba further north (see 1898).
The Department of Militia and Defence undertakes its first transactions with the goal of setting up a training camp for future recruits at Valcartier, Quebec.
Start of the First World War on 4 August in Europe. Great Britain’s declaration of war on Germany automatically brings Canada into the “Great War." Two days later, Prime Minister Robert Borden calls on volunteers to fight overseas.
Adoption on 18 August of the War Measures Act by the Parliament of Canada. This Act grants the government the right to censure and to imprison or deport any person suspected of impeding the war effort.
Departure on 3 October of the first Canadian contingent of 32,000 men to Europe.
Amendment of the Indian Act to the chapter on dances and traditions.... MORE
In November, the Canadian government launches the “Victory Bonds" campaign. The issue of these bonds makes it possible to finance the war (see Courage Exercises – War Posters, Propaganda and First Nations).
Battle of Ypres from 22 to 25 April... MORE
Creation of the National Service Board by the government of Robert Borden... MORE
Adoption of the St. Peter’s Reserve Act. The State takes back the reserve from the members of the community, who are relocated near Fisher River.
Battle of the Somme from 1 July to 18 November. On 1 July, the 1st Newfoundland Regiment (Newfoundland joins Confederation in 1949) is decimated: of the 801 soldiers in the regiment, 324 die and 386 suffer injuries.
Adoption of the Soldier Settlement Act, which facilitates the settlement of veterans on land. However, First Nations veterans experience difficulty availing themselves of the provisions provided for in this Act (see 1919).
Amendment to the Indian Act to allow for the appropriation of reserve lands for agricultural production without the consent of band councils. The government evokes the war effort as justification.
Passage on 28 August of the Military Service Act (adoption of the order-in-council on 17 January 1918) by the Governor General... MORE
Adoption on 20 September of the Wartime Elections Act, which grants soldiers, including First Nations soldiers, the right to vote.
The Battle of Vimy Ridge takes place from 9 to 14 April... MORE
The Battle of Passchendaele... ,MORE
At the start of November, Corporal Francis Pegahmagabow, an Ojibwe of Wasauksing (Parry Island), receives a first military medal for bravery at Passchendaele. He is the most decorated First Nations veteran of the First World War.
An amendment to the Indian Act, assented to on 24 May, grants the Superintendent the right to rent any part of a reserve considered to be uncultivated... MORE
The armistice signed between France, Great Britain and Germany on 11 November ends fighting in Europe.
Signing on 28 January of the Treaty of Versailles, which officially ends the First World War. Among the 600,?000 Canadian soldiers who enlisted, almost 180,000 are wounded and 65,000 are killed.
Amendment to theIndian Act, which grants the Superintendent the right to rent reserve lands for “precious metal mining" (9-10 George V, chapter 56, section 1).
Creation of the League of Indians of Canada by Frederick O. Loft.
Creation on 28 January of the League of Nations in the wake of the Treaty of Paris of 1919; Canada is one of the founding members.
Amendment to the Indian Act on 1 July which allows the Superintendent of Indian Affairs to enfranchise members of the First Nations that he deems qualified without their consent or that of the band (10-11 George V, chapter 50, section 3)... MORE
Amendment to the Indian Act qui which requires First Nations children under the age of 15 to attend school.
Signing in June of Treaty No. 11, which covers the territory located in Yukon and in the western portion of the Northwest Territories.
Publication of the book The Story of a National Crime by Peter Henderson Bryce which denounces living conditions in residential schools.
Signing on 31 October and 21 November of the Williams treaties, which covers the territory located in the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario.
Amendment to the Indian Act on 19 July in order to entrust the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs with “the administration of Eskimo affairs" (14-15 George V, chapter 47, section 1).
An amendment to the Indian Act (An Act respecting Indians, Revised Statutes of Canada, 1927)... MORE
For the first time in the history of legislative texts, the term “Indian" replaces the term “Savage" (An Act respecting Indians, S.R.C. 1927, vol. 11, chapter 98).
The Ojibwa of Severn River join Treaty No. 9.
Creation of the League of Indians of Western Canada.
Creation of the Manitoba Indian Brotherhood.
Amendment to the Indian Act in order to re-establish the provision on enfranchisement repealed in 1922. In particular, this amendment forces “enfranchisement" on any member of the First Nations who obtains a university diploma (see 1920).
In reaction to pressure exercised by various organizations and numerous First Nations veterans who denounce the discrimination suffered by “registered Indians," the government sets up a Joint Senate and House of Commons Committee... MORE
The Department of Indian Affairs loses its independence on 23 June and becomes a division within the Department of Mines and Resources (I Edward VIII, chapter 33). In December, the Department of the Interior disappears.
Creation of the Saskatchewan Métis Society.
Canada declares was on Germany on 10 September.
The Supreme Court of Canada stipules that the term “Indian," used in subsection 91(24) of the Constitution Act of 1867, includes the Inuit.
Creation of the Indian Association of Alberta.
Launch of the first funding campaign in support of the war effort: Victory Loans. Nine other campaigns would follow, making it possible for the Canadian government to raise 12 billion dollars.
Adoption on 21 June of the National Resources Mobilization Act. The Act... MORE
Beginning on 10 July of the Battle of Britain in which the Canadian Air Force participates.
Beginning on 9 October of obligatory training for all single men.
The Battle of Hong Kong takes place from 8 to 25 December. Nearly 300 Canadian soldiers die in the battle field and almost as many in Japanese prisoner-of-war camps.
On 27 April, the government of Mackenzie King holds a Canada-wide plebiscite asking the population to release it from its promise not to make conscription obligatory... MORE
Passing of the Veterans Land Act... MORE
Landing of Canadian troops at Dieppe, Normandy on 19 August. During the raid, 586 soldiers are injured, 907 die and 1,946 are captured by the enemy.
Beginning of the Italian campaign on 10 July... MORE
Allied landing in Normandy in June.
Order-in-council by the Canadian government on 23 November to send 16,000 conscripts overseas.
Vote on an order-in-council on 9 December by the House of Commons authorizing the government to send conscripts overseas.
Passing of the Department of Veterans Affairs Act... MORE
The Canadians participate in the liberation of the Netherlands from September 1944 to April 1945... MORE
Signing on 7 May of the armistice marking the end of the Second World War.
As of 5 July, a Canadian battalion participates in the occupation of a portion of Germany with military troops from various countries.
Adoption of the Veterans Rehabilitation Act... MORE
Creation on 16 November of UNESCO... MORE
Capitulation of Germany on 8 May.
Signing on 26 June of the Charter of the United Nations. It is ratified by approximately thirty countries on 5 October.
Capitulation of Japan on 15 August.
Creation of the Union of Saskatchewan Indians, which would become the Federation of Saskatchewan Indians in 1958.
Creation of the Indian Association of Manitoba.
The federal government sets up a Joint Senate and House of Commons Committee to examine the Indian Act... MORE
Creation of the North American Indian Brotherhood.
Adoption on 10 December of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations.
Creation of the Union of Ontario Indians.
On 10 December, an Act (13 George VI, chapter 16) closes the Department of Mines and Resources; Indian Affairs is placed under the jurisdiction of the Department of Citizenship and Immigration.
The Indian Act (15 George VI, chapter 29) is modified. The ban on potlatch and other traditional ceremonies is lifted, as is the ban on claims. Indian status is redefined. The discretionary powers of the minister of Indian Affairs are decreased and band councils acquire greater power over the management of local affairs.
A second Joint Senate and House of Commons Committee is held to revise Indian Affairs policies (see 1946-1948).
The members of the First Nations obtain the right to vote in federal elections without losing their “registered Indian" status. They would vote for the first time in the 1962 election.
Creation of the National Indian Council.
The minister of Citizenship and Immigration, which is in charge of Indian Affairs, orders the creation of a task force, the Hawthorn-Tremblay Commission, to look into the social, educational and economic situation of the First Nations... MORE
Indian Affairs is placed under the jurisdiction of the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources.
Creation of the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (14-15 Elisabeth II, chapter 25).
ContentCreation of the National Indian Brotherhood, which represents the members of the First Nations registered with the federal government. The organization replaces the National Indian Council and would eventually be replaced by the Assembly of First Nations.
Birth of the American Indian Movement (Red Power) in Minnesota.
Len Marchand is the first member of the First Nations elected (Kamloops-Cariboo) to the federal Parliament.
Mary Two-Axe Early, member of the Mohawk community of Kahnawake, helps create Equal Rights for Native Women. An activist for the rights of First Nations women, she is the first to have her status reinstated at a special ceremony in Toronto on 5 July 1985.
The Government of Canada publishes the White Paper on Indian policy... MORE
Publication of a book by Harold Cardinal, chief of the Indian Association of Alberta: The Unjust Society: The Tragedy of Canada’s Indians.
The First Nations obtain the right to vote in Quebec.
The Nisga’a of British Columbia take legal proceedings against the Canadian government in order to have their territorial rights recognized.
Tabling of the report of the Commission d’enquête sur l’intégrité du territoire du Québec (or the Commission Dorion, from the name of its president, Henri Dorion), which contends that the First Nations have rights over portions of Quebec territory.
Tabling of the report of the Royal Commission on the Status of Women in Canada,
Creation of the Native Women’s Association of Canada.
The minister of Indian Affairs officially accepts the document entitled Indian Control of Indian Education and undertakes to implement the measures advocated by the First Nations: the right to have control over education and the creation of Native school boards.
Judge Morrow of the Superior Court of the Northwest Territories recognizes that the Dene affected by treaties No. 8 and No. 11 “are, at first sight, the proprietors of the land included in the caveat and that they have what is referred to as native rights."
Judge Malouf of the Superior Court of Quebec grants the Cree an injunction ordering that work be stopped at the James Bay hydroelectric construction site.
Following the Nisga’a trial against the Attorney General of British Columbia, the Supreme Court of Canada rules in the Calder decision that... MORE
Jeannette Corbiere Lavell, member of the Wikwemikong nation, takes legal proceedings in order to contest the Indian Act.
In the wake of the Calder decision, the government creates the Office of Native Claims within the Department of Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada.
Signing of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (JBNQA) between the Grand Council of the Crees, the Northern Quebec Inuit Association, the Quebec Hydroelectric Commission and the governments of Quebec and Canada for the development of James Bay... MORE
Opening of the first Native Law Centre in Canada at the University of Saskatchewan.
Opening of the Saskatchewan Indian Federated College.
The United Nations NGO Conference on Discrimination Against Indigenous Populations in the Americas. Following the Conference, one hundred First Nations adopt the Declaration of Principles for the Defense of the Indigenous Nations and Peoples of the Western Hemisphere.
The governments of Quebec and Canada sign the Northeastern Quebec Agreement (NEQA) with the Naskapi (and the Inuit of Port Burwell)... MORE
Creation of the Secrétariat des activités gouvernementales en milieu amérindien et inuit (SAGMAI) by the Government of Quebec. It would become the Secrétariat aux affaires autochtones in 1987.
In February, the Joint Senate and House of Commons Committee, responsible for examining the Canadian Constitution repatriation project, agrees to include the recognition of First Nations’ rights in the project.
Sandra Lovelace, a Maliseet from the Tobique reserve (New Brunswick), lodges a complaint with the United Nations Human Rights Committee... MORE
Creation of the Assembly of First Nations.
Section 35(1) of the Constitution Act of Canada “recognizes and affirms the existing ancestral and treaty rights" of the First Nations, Inuit and Métis. In section 35(2), the Act specifies that the “Aboriginal peoples of Canada" include the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.
Creation of a special House of Commons Committee on Indian Self-Government chaired by Liberal deputy Keith Penner. The Committee recommends in particular modifying the claim settlement procedure through the creation of an independent body.
Second constitutional conference on the rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada.
Tabling of the report of the Special House of Commons Committee on Indian Self-Government – The Penner Report... MORE
The federal government adopts the Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act. The Act is considered by some as the first Canadian act on self-government of the First Nations. The Cree and the Naskapi are henceforth no longer governed by the Indian Act.
On 14 June, the Supreme Court of Canada rules in the Guérin decision that the State has the obligation to act as a fiduciary for the Aboriginal peoples when the latter are unable to act legally in their own name.
Third constitutional conference on the rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada.
On 20 March, the National Assembly of Quebec recognizes the existence of eleven Aboriginal nations in Quebec, as well as their ancestral and treaty rights.... MORE
Adoption of Bill C-31, An Act to Amend the Indian Act, which makes it possible for some members of the First Nations who lost their status to have it reinstated... MORE
Fourth constitutional conference on the rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada... MORE
The Manitoba Department of Education signs an agreement with the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs to allow the First Nations to administer their own education system on reserves.
Recognition of the Maliseet nation by the Government of Quebec.
The Supreme Court of Canada recognizes subsistence fishing in the Sparrow decision as an ancestral right protected by the Constitution. It also establishes the interpretation criteria in section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982.
The Supreme Court of Canada recognizes in the Sioui decision that... MORE
In the wake of the Oka crisis, the government sets up the Indian Claims Commission (ICC)... MORE
Creation of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples by order-in-council on 26 August. Co-chaired by Georges Erasmus and the Honorable René Dussault, the Commission is responsible for studying the situation of Aboriginal peoples in Canada (see 1996).
Signing of the Saskatchewan Treaty Land Entitlement Framework Agreement between the federal and provincial governments and 25 First Nations in Saskatchewan.
Creation of the British Columbia Treaty Commission. This independent Commission is responsible for supervising claims negotiations in the province.
Tabling on 10 June of the Cliquez ici Nunavut Act (S.C. 1993, chapter 28). The Act, which creates a new territory, would come into effect in April 1999.
Tabling of the Yukon First Nations Land Claims Settlement Act in the Canadian Parliament on 31 May. It would be passed at a later date (S.C. 1994, chapter 34).
Tabling on 31 May of the Yukon First Nations Self-Government Act. It would be passed at a later date (S.C. 1996, chapter 35).
On 28 October, Mary Simon becomes the first Inuit to hold the position of Canada’s ambassador for circumpolar affairs.
Tabling of the report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples Commission (Erasmus-Dussault Commission) in the House of Commons on 21 November. The report presents 440 recommendations dealing in particular with relations with the First Nations (see 1991).
The Supreme Court of Canada renders several decisions concerning the content and scope of ancestral and treaty rights of Canada’s First Nations. In Quebec, the Adam and Côté decisions .. More
The Supreme Court of Canada defines the nature of Aboriginal title in the Delgamuukw decision : a collective land entitlement that confers the right to the exclusive occupation and use of a territory... MORE
Entry into force on 1 April of the provisions of the Nunavut Act , thereby creating the Territory of Nunavut — “our land" in Inuktitut — and its government. The new territory covers an area of 2 million km2 north of the 60th parallel. The Inuit comprise 85% of the population in 28 villages and communities.
In the Marshall decision, the Supreme Court of Canada establishes that the Micmac and the other First Nations of Nova Scotia affected by the treaties reached in 1760-1761 have the right to exploit resources for traditional purposes and to trade them in order to ensure a reasonable subsistence level.
The Yukon Act is presented to Parliament on 31 October; it is passed at a later date (S.C. 2002, chapter 7). It repeals and replaces the previous Yukon Act (R.S.C. 1985, chapter Y-2).
Tabling on 29 June of the final report of the Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission.
The Paix des Braves is signed between Quebec and the Grand Council of the Crees of Quebec. The 50-year agreement allows for the community, social and economic development of the Cree nations.
On 9 April, the Government of Quebec signs the Sanarrutik Agreement on economic and community development with the Inuit of Nunavik.
In the Powley and Blais decisions, the Supreme Court of Canada rules that the members of the Métis community of Sault Ste. Marie and the surrounding areas possess an ancestral right to hunt for subsistence purposes... MORE
Official opening of the First Nations University of Canada in Regina.
General agreement in principle between the First Nations of Mamuitun and Nutashkuan and the governments of Quebec and Canada... MORE
In the Haida and Taku River decisions, the Supreme Court of Canada recognizes that the First Nations have the right to be consulted and to have their rights accommodated.
Tabling on 19 October of the Tlicho Land Claims and Self-Government Act... MORE
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The Canadian government indicates its support for the Declaration in November 2010.
Signing on 5 December of an agreement in principle between the Mackenzie Society and the governments of Quebec and Canada for the creation of a regional government in Nunavik.
Adoption on 18 June of Bill C-30 — Specific Claims Tribunal Act (SCTA). The Tribunal has the authority “to make binding decisions on both the validity of claims and compensations awards." The Act comes into force on 17 October 2008.
Endorsement by Canada on 12 November of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Canada announces that it officially supports the Declaration in full compliance with the Canadian Constitution and legal framework.
Adoption of Bill C-3 in the wake of the victory of Sharon McIvor, member of the Lower Nicola Valley First Nation, before the British Columbia Court of Appeal... MORE
Framework agreement on 27 May between the Cree and the government of Quebec concerning the governance of the Eeyou Istchee James Bay Territory.
Birth of the Idle No More movement.
The Tsilhqot’in Nation v. British Columbia decision rendered by the Supreme Court of Canada “represents the first definitive, formal, concrete and legal recognition in the history of Canadian law of an ancestral Aboriginal title on a territory" (Saint-Hilaire, 2014).
Tabling of the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada on residential schools.
Implementation of a national inquiry into missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls.