1800-1855

Arrival of a large number of immigrants. The population of Canada increases rapidly, going from approximately 391,899 inhabitants in 1806 to 2,485,709 inhabitants in 1855 (StatCan).

1828

Tabling on 24 July of the Darling report... MORE

1839-1840

Passage of the Act for the Protection of the Land (Upper Canada, 1839) and of the Ordonnance pour pourvoir à la protection des Indiens ou Sauvages (Lower Canada, 1840) ...MORE

1840

The Act of Union unites Upper Canada (southern Ontario) and Lower Canada (southern Quebec) into what becomes the Province of Canada.

1844

Tabling on 20 March of the Bagot Commission report... MORE

1850-1854

The government signs fourteen treaties with representatives of the First Nations on Vancouver Island... MORE

1850

Signing of theRobinson-Huron (9 September) and Robinson-Superior (7 September)... MORE

1850

Adoption on 10 August of the Act for the better protection of the Lands and Property of the Indians in Lower Canada (13-14 Victoria, chapter 42) and of the Act for the protection of Indians in Upper Canada... MORE

1851

Adoption on 30 August of the Acte pour mettre à part certaines étendues de terre pour l’usage de certaines tribus de Sauvages dans le Bas-Canada (14-15 Victoria, chapter 106)... MORE

1851

Adoption on 30 August of the Act to repeal and amend an act entitled Act for the better protection of the Lands and Property of the Indians in Lower Canada (14-15 Victoria, chapter 59)... MORE

1858

Tabling of the Pennefather Commission report... MORE

1860

The Colonial Office transfers the responsibility of Indian Affairs to the government of the Province of Canada. Until Confederation, Indian Affairs is under the jurisdiction of the Crown Lands Department and the Commissioner becomes Chief Superintendent (23 Victoria, chapter 151).

1862

Signing in October of the Manitoulin Island Treaty.

1867

Adoption on 29 March of the British North America Act — which unites Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick — and transfers the administration of Indian Affairs to the Secretary of State (30-31 Victoria, chapter 3, section 91[24]). Parliament is entrusted with “the Indians and the lands reserved for the Indians" (sec. 29).

1869

Adoption on 22 June of an amendment to the Indian Act: An Act for the gradual enfranchisement of Indians, the better management of Indian affairs, and to extend the provisions of the Act 31st Victoria, Chapter 42... MORE

1870

Creation of the Grand Indian Council of Ontario and Quebec.

1870

Signing in August of treaties No 1 and 2 ... MORE

1870

British Columbia joins the Canadian Confederation. One clause stipulates that the railroad must reach the province within ten years following the province’s union with Canada.

1872

The Dominion Lands Act gives 160 acres of land to each father of an immigrant family who wishes to settle and farm the land in western Canada. However, this Act applies solely to the lands already surrendered by the First Nations (section 14 of the order-in-council of 23 June 1870).

1873

Signing of Treaty No. 3 , which covers the territory located in the western portion of the present-day province of Ontario and a portion of Manitoba.

1873

The creation of the North-West Mounted Police... MORE

1873

Prince Edward Island joins Confederation.

1873

Adoption on 3 May of An Act to provide for the establishment of “The Department of the Interior" (36 Victoria, chapter 4). The Department of Indian Affairs falls under the jurisdiction of the Department of the Interior.

1874

Signing at Fort Qu’Appelle on 14 September of Treaty No. 4, which covers the territory in the southern portions of the present-day provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta and Manitoba.

1875

Signing on 20 and 24 September of Treaty No. 5, which covers the territory located in the central and western portions of the present-day province of Manitoba. •

1876

The Indian Act is adopted on 12 April as An Act to amend and consolidate the laws respecting Indians(39 Victoria, chapter 18).... MORE

1876

Signing on 23 August ofTreaty No. 6, which covers the territory located in the centre of the present-day provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta.

1877

Signing on 22 September of Treaty No. 7, which covers the territory located in the southern portion of the present-day province of Alberta.

1879

The government entrusts Nicholas Flood Davin, journalist and lawyer, with the mandate to conduct a study on the system of industrial schools... MORE

1880

Adoption on 7 May of An Act to amend and consolidate the laws respecting Indians (or Indian Act, 1880) (43 Victoria, chapter 28)... MORE

1884

Adoption on 19 April of An Act to further amend “The Indian Act, 1880"(47 Victoria, chapter 27)... MORE

1885

Battle of Batoche.,, MORE

1886

Adoption of the Act respecting Indians (49 Victoria, chapter 43).

1887

An amendment to the Act respecting Indians (Act to amend the Indian Act [50-51 Victoria, chapter 33, section 1]),.. MORE

1888

Amendment to the Indian Act allowing the Canadian government to rent certain reserve lands without band consent.

1889

Hayter Reed, superintendent of Indian Affairs, puts forward a subsistence agriculture policy known as the Peasant Farming Policy... MORE

1890

Amendment to theIndian Act assented to on 16 May. This amendment authorizes the Superintendent General to subject Indians to laws “on hunting or on such a species of game" in effect in Manitoba and the Northwest Territories (53 Victoria, chapter 29, section 10).

1894

Amendment to the Indian Act in order to authorize the Superintendent to require attendance at residential schools subject to penalty (57-58 Victoria, chapter 32, section 11).

1895

One amendment to the Indian Act extends the scope of the ban on potlatch to include the dance known as Tamanawas.... MORE

1898 and 1912

Adoption of the Acts to expand the borders of Quebec and Ontario.

1899

Signing on 21 June of Treaty No. 8, which covers northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, northwestern Saskatchewan and a portion of the Northwest Territories.

1905

Saskatchewan and Alberta join Confederation.

1905

Signing in July of Traity No. 9 which covers the territory located in the northern portion of the present-day province of Ontario.

1906

Signing in August of Treaty No. 10, which covers the territory located in the central and northeastern portions of the present-day province of Saskatchewan.

1906

Amendment to the Indian Act ... MORE

1907

The Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, Frank Pedley, sells the St. Peter reserve (Manitoba). One twentieth of the revenues from the sale are remitted to the members of the community.

1911

Faced with the reluctance on the part of the First Nations to sell their lands, Franck Olivier, Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, amends the Indian Act in order to bypass approval from a band council for land sales... MORE

1912

Expansion of the borders of Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba further north (see 1898).

1912

The Department of Militia and Defence undertakes its first transactions with the goal of setting up a training camp for future recruits at Valcartier, Quebec.

1914

Start of the First World War on 4 August in Europe. Great Britain’s declaration of war on Germany automatically brings Canada into the “Great War." Two days later, Prime Minister Robert Borden calls on volunteers to fight overseas.

1914

Adoption on 18 August of the War Measures Act by the Parliament of Canada. This Act grants the government the right to censure and to imprison or deport any person suspected of impeding the war effort.

1914

Departure on 3 October of the first Canadian contingent of 32,000 men to Europe.

1914

Amendment of the Indian Act to the chapter on dances and traditions.... MORE

1915

In November, the Canadian government launches the “Victory Bonds" campaign. The issue of these bonds makes it possible to finance the war (see Courage Exercises – War Posters, Propaganda and First Nations).

1915

Battle of Ypres from 22 to 25 April... MORE

1916

Creation of the National Service Board by the government of Robert Borden... MORE

1916

Adoption of the St. Peter’s Reserve Act. The State takes back the reserve from the members of the community, who are relocated near Fisher River.

1916

Battle of the Somme from 1 July to 18 November. On 1 July, the 1st Newfoundland Regiment (Newfoundland joins Confederation in 1949) is decimated: of the 801 soldiers in the regiment, 324 die and 386 suffer injuries.

1917

Adoption of the Soldier Settlement Act, which facilitates the settlement of veterans on land. However, First Nations veterans experience difficulty availing themselves of the provisions provided for in this Act (see 1919).

1917

Amendment to the Indian Act to allow for the appropriation of reserve lands for agricultural production without the consent of band councils. The government evokes the war effort as justification.

1917

Passage on 28 August of the Military Service Act (adoption of the order-in-council on 17 January 1918) by the Governor General... MORE

1917

Adoption on 20 September of the Wartime Elections Act, which grants soldiers, including First Nations soldiers, the right to vote.

1917

The Battle of Vimy Ridge takes place from 9 to 14 April... MORE

1917

The Battle of Passchendaele... ,MORE

1917

At the start of November, Corporal Francis Pegahmagabow, an Ojibwe of Wasauksing (Parry Island), receives a first military medal for bravery at Passchendaele. He is the most decorated First Nations veteran of the First World War.

1918

An amendment to the Indian Act, assented to on 24 May, grants the Superintendent the right to rent any part of a reserve considered to be uncultivated... MORE

1918

The armistice signed between France, Great Britain and Germany on 11 November ends fighting in Europe.

1919

Signing on 28 January of the Treaty of Versailles, which officially ends the First World War. Among the 600,?000 Canadian soldiers who enlisted, almost 180,000 are wounded and 65,000 are killed.

1919

On 1 January, the federal government adopts the Soldier Settlement Act... MORE

1919

Amendment to theIndian Act, which grants the Superintendent the right to rent reserve lands for “precious metal mining" (9-10 George V, chapter 56, section 1).

1919

Creation of the League of Indians of Canada by Frederick O. Loft.

1920

Creation on 28 January of the League of Nations in the wake of the Treaty of Paris of 1919; Canada is one of the founding members.

1920

Amendment to the Indian Act on 1 July which allows the Superintendent of Indian Affairs to enfranchise members of the First Nations that he deems qualified without their consent or that of the band (10-11 George V, chapter 50, section 3)... MORE

1920

Amendment to the Indian Act qui which requires First Nations children under the age of 15 to attend school.

1921

Signing in June of Treaty No. 11, which covers the territory located in Yukon and in the western portion of the Northwest Territories.

1922

Publication of the book The Story of a National Crime by Peter Henderson Bryce which denounces living conditions in residential schools.

1923

Signing on 31 October and 21 November of the Williams treaties, which covers the territory located in the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario.

1924

Amendment to the Indian Act on 19 July in order to entrust the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs with “the administration of Eskimo affairs" (14-15 George V, chapter 47, section 1).

1927

An amendment to the Indian Act (An Act respecting Indians, Revised Statutes of Canada, 1927)... MORE

1927

For the first time in the history of legislative texts, the term “Indian" replaces the term “Savage" (An Act respecting Indians, S.R.C. 1927, vol. 11, chapter 98).

1929

The Ojibwa of Severn River join Treaty No. 9.

1929

Creation of the League of Indians of Western Canada.

1932

Creation of the Manitoba Indian Brotherhood.

1933

Amendment to the Indian Act in order to re-establish the provision on enfranchisement repealed in 1922. In particular, this amendment forces “enfranchisement" on any member of the First Nations who obtains a university diploma (see 1920).

1936

In reaction to pressure exercised by various organizations and numerous First Nations veterans who denounce the discrimination suffered by “registered Indians," the government sets up a Joint Senate and House of Commons Committee... MORE

1936

The Department of Indian Affairs loses its independence on 23 June and becomes a division within the Department of Mines and Resources (I Edward VIII, chapter 33). In December, the Department of the Interior disappears.

1937

Creation of the Saskatchewan Métis Society.

1939

Canada declares was on Germany on 10 September.

1939

The Supreme Court of Canada stipules that the term “Indian," used in subsection 91(24) of the Constitution Act of 1867, includes the Inuit.

1939

Creation of the Indian Association of Alberta.

1940

Launch of the first funding campaign in support of the war effort: Victory Loans. Nine other campaigns would follow, making it possible for the Canadian government to raise 12 billion dollars.

1940

Adoption on 21 June of the National Resources Mobilization Act. The Act... MORE

1940

Beginning on 10 July of the Battle of Britain in which the Canadian Air Force participates.

1940

Beginning on 9 October of obligatory training for all single men.

1941

The Battle of Hong Kong takes place from 8 to 25 December. Nearly 300 Canadian soldiers die in the battle field and almost as many in Japanese prisoner-of-war camps.

1942

On 27 April, the government of Mackenzie King holds a Canada-wide plebiscite asking the population to release it from its promise not to make conscription obligatory... MORE

1942

Passing of the Veterans Land Act... MORE

1942

Landing of Canadian troops at Dieppe, Normandy on 19 August. During the raid, 586 soldiers are injured, 907 die and 1,946 are captured by the enemy.

1943

Beginning of the Italian campaign on 10 July... MORE

1944

Allied landing in Normandy in June.

1944

Order-in-council by the Canadian government on 23 November to send 16,000 conscripts overseas.

1944

Vote on an order-in-council on 9 December by the House of Commons authorizing the government to send conscripts overseas.

1944

Passing of the Department of Veterans Affairs Act... MORE

1944

The Canadians participate in the liberation of the Netherlands from September 1944 to April 1945... MORE

1945

Signing on 7 May of the armistice marking the end of the Second World War.

1945

As of 5 July, a Canadian battalion participates in the occupation of a portion of Germany with military troops from various countries.

1945

Adoption of the Veterans Rehabilitation Act... MORE

1945

Creation on 16 November of UNESCO... MORE

1945

Capitulation of Germany on 8 May.

1945

Signing on 26 June of the Charter of the United Nations. It is ratified by approximately thirty countries on 5 October.

1945

Capitulation of Japan on 15 August.

1946

Creation of the Union of Saskatchewan Indians, which would become the Federation of Saskatchewan Indians in 1958.

1946

Creation of the Indian Association of Manitoba.

1946-1948

The federal government sets up a Joint Senate and House of Commons Committee to examine the Indian Act... MORE

1948

Creation of the North American Indian Brotherhood.

1948

Adoption on 10 December of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations.

1949

Creation of the Union of Ontario Indians.

1950

On 10 December, an Act (13 George VI, chapter 16) closes the Department of Mines and Resources; Indian Affairs is placed under the jurisdiction of the Department of Citizenship and Immigration.

1951

The Indian Act (15 George VI, chapter 29) is modified. The ban on potlatch and other traditional ceremonies is lifted, as is the ban on claims. Indian status is redefined. The discretionary powers of the minister of Indian Affairs are decreased and band councils acquire greater power over the management of local affairs.

1959-1961

A second Joint Senate and House of Commons Committee is held to revise Indian Affairs policies (see 1946-1948).

1960

The members of the First Nations obtain the right to vote in federal elections without losing their “registered Indian" status. They would vote for the first time in the 1962 election.

1961

Creation of the National Indian Council.

1964

The minister of Citizenship and Immigration, which is in charge of Indian Affairs, orders the creation of a task force, the Hawthorn-Tremblay Commission, to look into the social, educational and economic situation of the First Nations... MORE

1965

Indian Affairs is placed under the jurisdiction of the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources.

1966

Creation of the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (14-15 Elisabeth II, chapter 25).

1968

ContentCreation of the National Indian Brotherhood, which represents the members of the First Nations registered with the federal government. The organization replaces the National Indian Council and would eventually be replaced by the Assembly of First Nations.

1968

Birth of the American Indian Movement (Red Power) in Minnesota.

1968

Len Marchand is the first member of the First Nations elected (Kamloops-Cariboo) to the federal Parliament.

1968

Mary Two-Axe Early, member of the Mohawk community of Kahnawake, helps create Equal Rights for Native Women. An activist for the rights of First Nations women, she is the first to have her status reinstated at a special ceremony in Toronto on 5 July 1985.

1969

The Government of Canada publishes the White Paper on Indian policy... MORE

1969

Publication of a book by Harold Cardinal, chief of the Indian Association of Alberta: The Unjust Society: The Tragedy of Canada’s Indians.

1969

The First Nations obtain the right to vote in Quebec.

1969

The Nisga’a of British Columbia take legal proceedings against the Canadian government in order to have their territorial rights recognized.

1969

Tabling of the report of the Commission d’enquête sur l’intégrité du territoire du Québec (or the Commission Dorion, from the name of its president, Henri Dorion), which contends that the First Nations have rights over portions of Quebec territory.

1970

Tabling of the report of the Royal Commission on the Status of Women in Canada,

1971

Creation of the Native Women’s Association of Canada.

1973

The minister of Indian Affairs officially accepts the document entitled Indian Control of Indian Education and undertakes to implement the measures advocated by the First Nations: the right to have control over education and the creation of Native school boards.

1973

Judge Morrow of the Superior Court of the Northwest Territories recognizes that the Dene affected by treaties No. 8 and No. 11 “are, at first sight, the proprietors of the land included in the caveat and that they have what is referred to as native rights."

1973

Judge Malouf of the Superior Court of Quebec grants the Cree an injunction ordering that work be stopped at the James Bay hydroelectric construction site.

1973

Following the Nisga’a trial against the Attorney General of British Columbia, the Supreme Court of Canada rules in the Calder decision that... MORE

1973

Jeannette Corbiere Lavell, member of the Wikwemikong nation, takes legal proceedings in order to contest the Indian Act.

1974

In the wake of the Calder decision, the government creates the Office of Native Claims within the Department of Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada.

1975

Signing of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (JBNQA) between the Grand Council of the Crees, the Northern Quebec Inuit Association, the Quebec Hydroelectric Commission and the governments of Quebec and Canada for the development of James Bay... MORE

1975

Opening of the first Native Law Centre in Canada at the University of Saskatchewan.

1976

Opening of the Saskatchewan Indian Federated College.

1977

The United Nations NGO Conference on Discrimination Against Indigenous Populations in the Americas. Following the Conference, one hundred First Nations adopt the Declaration of Principles for the Defense of the Indigenous Nations and Peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

1978

The governments of Quebec and Canada sign the Northeastern Quebec Agreement (NEQA) with the Naskapi (and the Inuit of Port Burwell)... MORE

1978

Creation of the Secrétariat des activités gouvernementales en milieu amérindien et inuit (SAGMAI) by the Government of Quebec. It would become the Secrétariat aux affaires autochtones in 1987.

1981

In February, the Joint Senate and House of Commons Committee, responsible for examining the Canadian Constitution repatriation project, agrees to include the recognition of First Nations’ rights in the project.

1981

Sandra Lovelace, a Maliseet from the Tobique reserve (New Brunswick), lodges a complaint with the United Nations Human Rights Committee... MORE

1982

Creation of the Assembly of First Nations.

1982

Section 35(1) of the Constitution Act of Canada “recognizes and affirms the existing ancestral and treaty rights" of the First Nations, Inuit and Métis. In section 35(2), the Act specifies that the “Aboriginal peoples of Canada" include the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

1983

Creation of a special House of Commons Committee on Indian Self-Government chaired by Liberal deputy Keith Penner. The Committee recommends in particular modifying the claim settlement procedure through the creation of an independent body.

1983

Second constitutional conference on the rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada.

1983

Tabling of the report of the Special House of Commons Committee on Indian Self-Government – The Penner Report... MORE

1983

Section 35 of the Constitution is modified such that rights acquired after 1982 through territorial claims by Aboriginal nations are recognized and protected.

1984

The federal government adopts the Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act. The Act is considered by some as the first Canadian act on self-government of the First Nations. The Cree and the Naskapi are henceforth no longer governed by the Indian Act.

1984

On 14 June, the Supreme Court of Canada rules in the Guérin decision that the State has the obligation to act as a fiduciary for the Aboriginal peoples when the latter are unable to act legally in their own name.

1985

Third constitutional conference on the rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada.

1985

On 20 March, the National Assembly of Quebec recognizes the existence of eleven Aboriginal nations in Quebec, as well as their ancestral and treaty rights.... MORE

1985

Adoption of Bill C-31, An Act to Amend the Indian Act, which makes it possible for some members of the First Nations who lost their status to have it reinstated... MORE

1987

Fourth constitutional conference on the rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada... MORE

1989

The Manitoba Department of Education signs an agreement with the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs to allow the First Nations to administer their own education system on reserves.

1989

Recognition of the Maliseet nation by the Government of Quebec.

1989

The Supreme Court of Canada recognizes subsistence fishing in the Sparrow decision as an ancestral right protected by the Constitution. It also establishes the interpretation criteria in section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982.

1990

The Supreme Court of Canada recognizes in the Sioui decision that... MORE

1991

In the wake of the Oka crisis, the government sets up the Indian Claims Commission (ICC)... MORE

1991

Creation of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples by order-in-council on 26 August. Co-chaired by Georges Erasmus and the Honorable René Dussault, the Commission is responsible for studying the situation of Aboriginal peoples in Canada (see 1996).

1992

Signing of the Saskatchewan Treaty Land Entitlement Framework Agreement between the federal and provincial governments and 25 First Nations in Saskatchewan.

1993

Creation of the British Columbia Treaty Commission. This independent Commission is responsible for supervising claims negotiations in the province.

1993

Tabling of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act (S.C. 1993, chapter 29) in the House of Commons on 10 June. The Agreement is then ratified.

1993

Tabling on 10 June of the Cliquez ici Nunavut Act (S.C. 1993, chapter 28). The Act, which creates a new territory, would come into effect in April 1999.

1994

Tabling of the Yukon First Nations Land Claims Settlement Act in the Canadian Parliament on 31 May. It would be passed at a later date (S.C. 1994, chapter 34).

1994

Tabling on 31 May of the Yukon First Nations Self-Government Act. It would be passed at a later date (S.C. 1996, chapter 35).

1994

On 28 October, Mary Simon becomes the first Inuit to hold the position of Canada’s ambassador for circumpolar affairs.

1996

Tabling of the report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples Commission (Erasmus-Dussault Commission) in the House of Commons on 21 November. The report presents 440 recommendations dealing in particular with relations with the First Nations (see 1991).

1996

The Supreme Court of Canada renders several decisions concerning the content and scope of ancestral and treaty rights of Canada’s First Nations. In Quebec, the Adam and Côté decisions .. More

1997

The Supreme Court of Canada defines the nature of Aboriginal title in the Delgamuukw decision : a collective land entitlement that confers the right to the exclusive occupation and use of a territory... MORE

1999

Entry into force on 1 April of the provisions of the Nunavut Act , thereby creating the Territory of Nunavut — “our land" in Inuktitut — and its government. The new territory covers an area of 2 million km2 north of the 60th parallel. The Inuit comprise 85% of the population in 28 villages and communities.

1999

In the Marshall decision, the Supreme Court of Canada establishes that the Micmac and the other First Nations of Nova Scotia affected by the treaties reached in 1760-1761 have the right to exploit resources for traditional purposes and to trade them in order to ensure a reasonable subsistence level.

2000

The Nisga’a Final Agreement Act comes into effect.

2001

The Yukon Act is presented to Parliament on 31 October; it is passed at a later date (S.C. 2002, chapter 7). It repeals and replaces the previous Yukon Act (R.S.C. 1985, chapter Y-2).

2001

Tabling on 29 June of the final report of the Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission.

2002

The Paix des Braves is signed between Quebec and the Grand Council of the Crees of Quebec. The 50-year agreement allows for the community, social and economic development of the Cree nations.

2002

On 9 April, the Government of Quebec signs the Sanarrutik Agreement on economic and community development with the Inuit of Nunavik.

2003

In the Powley and Blais decisions, the Supreme Court of Canada rules that the members of the Métis community of Sault Ste. Marie and the surrounding areas possess an ancestral right to hunt for subsistence purposes... MORE

2003

Official opening of the First Nations University of Canada in Regina.

2004

General agreement in principle between the First Nations of Mamuitun and Nutashkuan and the governments of Quebec and Canada... MORE

2004

In the Haida and Taku River decisions, the Supreme Court of Canada recognizes that the First Nations have the right to be consulted and to have their rights accommodated.

2004

Tabling on 19 October of the Tlicho Land Claims and Self-Government Act... MORE

2007

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The Canadian government indicates its support for the Declaration in November 2010.

2007

Signing on 5 December of an agreement in principle between the Mackenzie Society and the governments of Quebec and Canada for the creation of a regional government in Nunavik.

2008

Adoption on 18 June of Bill C-30 — Specific Claims Tribunal Act (SCTA). The Tribunal has the authority “to make binding decisions on both the validity of claims and compensations awards." The Act comes into force on 17 October 2008.

2010

Endorsement by Canada on 12 November of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Canada announces that it officially supports the Declaration in full compliance with the Canadian Constitution and legal framework.

2010

Adoption of Bill C-3 in the wake of the victory of Sharon McIvor, member of the Lower Nicola Valley First Nation, before the British Columbia Court of Appeal... MORE

2011

Framework agreement on 27 May between the Cree and the government of Quebec concerning the governance of the Eeyou Istchee James Bay Territory.

2013

Birth of the Idle No More movement.

2014

The Tsilhqot’in Nation v. British Columbia decision rendered by the Supreme Court of Canada “represents the first definitive, formal, concrete and legal recognition in the history of Canadian law of an ancestral Aboriginal title on a territory" (Saint-Hilaire, 2014).

2015

Tabling of the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada on residential schools.

2016

Implementation of a national inquiry into missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls.